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Why The Red Shift Does Not Prove The Expansion Of The Universe

February 20th 2006

Why The Red Shift Does Not Prove The Expansion Of The Universe

Red Shift Diagram nasa.gov

The work of Hubble and the observed red shifts were used to support the belief that the universe is apparently expanding. His work showed that the red shift had a linear dependence on distance. It was assumed that the red shift was due to the Doppler effect.

While Hubble measured red shifts as a function of measured distances, Hubble himself initially used the term "apparent velocity" in connection with the red shift. In turn, this was assumed to prove that the universe was expanding ­ in all directions.

The work of Saul Perlmutter and others is cited to show that the expansion of the universe is apparently accelerating and thus introduced the need for dark energy.


The support for the expansion of the universe is based upon the determination of distance of standard stars (super nova Type Ia) by the relative light energy received from these stars.

However, the distances are also determined from the measured red shifts and the Hubble constant. Initially Hubble determined the distances of red shift stars by measurements using nearby calibrated stars. The Hubble constant together with observed red shifts is used to calculate distances for stars that are much further away, by assuming that the linear relationship is also valid for very remote stars.

Because some of the very remote stars are more faint than expected from the red shift data it was suggested that these remote stars are further away than expected from the red shift data.

Thus it was explained that these remote stars are moving faster than expected (an acceleration of the expansion) and thus introduces the need for dark energy to power the acceleration.


However, the errors in the conclusions are caused by not understanding that there are THREE other contributions to the red shift that depend upon gravity in addition to the Doppler shift contribution. One gravity contribution is a function of the log of distance, is linear for shorter distances, but shows the non-linear component at very large distances where the apparent acceleration of the supposed expansion appears.

One of the red shift, energy loss components depends upon distance including gravitational drag by gas and dust in long distance travel through interstellar space. This is similar to the loss of energy from the moon due to the effect of the moon and gravity on Earth tides.

The photons traveling distances large enough to drop energy to the microwave range also come into thermal equilibrium with the very low temperature of interstellar gas and dust. This explains the cosmic microwave background and the uniform low temperature from all directions.

The loss of photon energy dropping below the visible range explains Olber’s Paradox ­ why the sky is black in spite of the fact that there are vast numbers of stars in the sky.

According to the General Relativity theory of Einstein, gravity can deflect photons and also can influence photon energy.

Another part of my analysis is the explanation of apparent dark matter by the introduction of an EXTENSION of Newton’s gravitational constant by the addition of a term linear with distance, where this EXTENDED GRAVITY term becomes significant only outside our solar system ­ at galactic distances. Dark matter is not needed to explain the flat rotation velocity curves of spiral galaxies (as described by Vera Rubin) ­ only dark or extended gravity.

The result is that at large distances, the calculated red shift is a logarithmic function of distance ­ leading to the apparent acceleration of the apparent expansion, and the apparent need for dark energy, and the apparent big bang.

Our analysis also determined that one gravitational contribution to the red shift causes errors in determination of the distance of massive quasars (making them appear further away) thus giving a very large value for calculated emitted energy. This also results is a calculated transverse velocity (proper motion) of massive quasars that are unacceptably larger than the velocity of light.

Our understanding of the real meaning of the red shift (gravity more than velocity) removes the support for (a) the expanding universe, (b) the accelerating expansion, and (c) the big bang.

Cosmology depends upon observations to suggest theories and even more important, used to validate theories.

The introduction of a new understanding of the true meaning of extended gravity, and of the red shift is also able to predict and explain many of the puzzling observations and mysteries of the universe.

Details of my analysis of the true universe are provided at my web site, along with previous versions of the analysis:  


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By Sol Aisenberg
Sol is a Scientist with Ph.D. in Physics from M.I.T., a generalist, executive experience, independent inventor.  Contact Sol

Physics and Space Books

Keywords and misspellings:  pioneer space craft anamoly 

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Copyright 2005 Best Syndication                                            Last Updated Saturday, July 10, 2010 09:48 PM