The Red Shift Does Not Prove The Expansion Of The Universe
Red Shift Diagram
The work of
Hubble and the observed red shifts were used to support the belief
that the universe is apparently expanding. His work showed that the
red shift had a linear dependence on distance. It was assumed that
the red shift was due to the Doppler effect.
measured red shifts as a function of measured distances, Hubble
himself initially used the term "apparent velocity" in connection
with the red shift. In turn, this was assumed to prove that the
universe was expanding in all directions.
The work of Saul
Perlmutter and others is cited to show that the expansion of the
universe is apparently accelerating and thus introduced the need for
The support for
the expansion of the universe is based upon the determination of
distance of standard stars (super nova Type Ia) by the relative
light energy received from these stars.
distances are also determined from the measured red shifts and the
Hubble constant. Initially Hubble determined the distances of red
shift stars by measurements using nearby calibrated stars. The
Hubble constant together with observed red shifts is used to
calculate distances for stars that are much further away, by
assuming that the linear relationship is also valid for very remote
Because some of
the very remote stars are more faint than expected from the red
shift data it was suggested that these remote stars are further away
than expected from the red shift data.
Thus it was
explained that these remote stars are moving faster than expected
(an acceleration of the expansion) and thus introduces the need for
dark energy to power the acceleration.
errors in the conclusions are caused by not understanding that there
are THREE other contributions to the red shift that depend upon
gravity in addition to the Doppler shift contribution. One gravity
contribution is a function of the log of distance, is linear for
shorter distances, but shows the non-linear component at very large
distances where the apparent acceleration of the supposed expansion
One of the red
shift, energy loss components depends upon distance including
gravitational drag by gas and dust in long distance travel through
interstellar space. This is similar to the loss of energy from the
moon due to the effect of the moon and gravity on Earth tides.
traveling distances large enough to drop energy to the microwave
range also come into thermal equilibrium with the very low
temperature of interstellar gas and dust. This explains the cosmic
microwave background and the uniform low temperature from all
The loss of
photon energy dropping below the visible range explains Olber’s
Paradox why the sky is black in spite of the fact that there are
vast numbers of stars in the sky.
According to the
General Relativity theory of Einstein, gravity can deflect photons
and also can influence photon energy.
Another part of
my analysis is the explanation of apparent dark matter by the
introduction of an EXTENSION of Newton’s gravitational constant by
the addition of a term linear with distance, where this EXTENDED
GRAVITY term becomes significant only outside our solar system at
galactic distances. Dark matter is not needed to explain the flat
rotation velocity curves of spiral galaxies (as described by Vera
Rubin) only dark or extended gravity.
The result is
that at large distances, the calculated red shift is a logarithmic
function of distance leading to the apparent acceleration of the
apparent expansion, and the apparent need for dark energy, and the
apparent big bang.
Our analysis also
determined that one gravitational contribution to the red shift
causes errors in determination of the distance of massive quasars
(making them appear further away) thus giving a very large value for
calculated emitted energy. This also results is a calculated
transverse velocity (proper motion) of massive quasars that are
unacceptably larger than the velocity of light.
of the real meaning of the red shift (gravity more than velocity)
removes the support for (a) the expanding universe, (b) the
accelerating expansion, and (c) the big bang.
upon observations to suggest theories and even more important, used
to validate theories.
of a new understanding of the true meaning of extended gravity, and
of the red shift is also able to predict and explain many of the
puzzling observations and mysteries of the universe.
Details of my
analysis of the true universe are provided at my web site, along
with previous versions of the analysis:
Sol is a
Ph.D. in Physics from M.I.T., a
generalist, executive experience, independent inventor.
misspellings: pioneer space craft anamoly